The art association Devětsil (Umělecký Svaz Devětsil) gathered artists of different poetics, but all with Marxist orientation and well connected with the international avant-garde movements. After the initial searching and dedication to the proletarian art still reclining on the traditional aesthetics, as a framework for their activities in 1923 the members embraced Poetism, an artistic program defined by Vítězslav Nezval and Karel Teige. The greatest contribution of Devětsil was manifested in poetry and illustration, but its members also significantly influenced the sculpture, film, typography, book design, theatre and architecture. Under the influences of Purism, Constructivism, Futurism and Dadaism, Devětsil turned without any reserve towards the new, contemporary civilisation and modern technology as well as the popularisation of art that should define a new, adequate form of expression for them. The first manifesto of Devětsil invited the artists to recognise the poetics of the everyday objects. The new art was realised in skyscrapers, airplanes, mime and posters. They considered the traditional art dead and Teige thought that the most beautiful pictures were those painted by anonymous artists. Picture poems, with their orthogonal disposition close to the Constructivists' photomontage or Dadaists' collages, were their prevailing art form and they included everything that came out of the lyrical reality of the contemporary world. Teige thought that the picture poems, multiplied by the tools of contemporary print and easily accessible to the largest public, will eventually annul the traditional uniqueness of the art object. In the wake of this idea Devětsil organised programmatic exhibitions like the Bazaar of Modern Art (Prague, 1923), where alongside the exhibited art works were presented various everyday objects, posters and product designs that challenged all previous notions of visual art and purpose of artistic creation. The typography of Devětsil, based upon the simple and perfectly legible lines, function adapted to the content and purpose of texts and merging of picture with typo-photo print are all embedded in the foundations of the contemporary culture of visual communications.
Dizajn japanske knjige iz 20-ih godina Book design in the 1920’s Japan
Book design in the 1920’s JapanLa testa di ferro