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Radical Practices
"Radical Practices from Marinko Sudac Collection" exhibition
05. October 2015

The Marinko Sudac Collection, based in Zagreb encompasses a large number of artworks of progressive Avant-Garde, Neo-Avant-Garde, and Post-Avant-Garde art, including morphologically and conceptually similar artistic developments, as well as various practices of experimental art across Europe and beyond from the beginning of the 20th century until the fall of the Berlin Wall. The heterogeneous Collection contains many artworks - from paintings, drawings, collages, graphics, and other art techniques, to photographs, photo-grams and other photographic experiments, films and experimental anti-films. It also includes art concepts, projects, sketches, sculptures, objects, installations, and ambients alongside artists' and experts' correspondences, in some cases entire archives. The Collection's interest extends from the Baltic area to the Black Sea, with particular emphasis on Central and Eastern Europe. The collector's strategy is directed towards systematic exploration, research, and promotion of Avant-Garde practices that have been marginalized, forbidden, and at times completely rejected, due to historical, social and political circumstances. In this respect, the Collection is, in relation to already existing European art collections, regionally cohesive, and presents an inexhaustible resource for the research of Avant-Garde art and a dynamic platform for the exchange of knowledge on the phenomenon of Avant-Garde. This can be seen in numerous topical and retrospective exhibitions, organized events, followed by connected detailed publications or studies, articles in professional journals, some published in the framework of research projects and collaborations with numerous important institutions, experts, theoreticians, art historians, and artists from the entire world.

In the last couple of years, the Hungarian public has had the chance to see the artworks from the Collection on exhibitions in Budapest twice – on the exhibitions Circles of Interference in the Kassák Múzeum (2012) - focused on the comparison of Yugoslav and Hungarian Avant-Garde art, and Transition and Transition: Josip Vaništa, Oleg Kulik, Blue Noses (2014) in the Ludwig Múzeum - Museum of Contemporary art, on which they could see, among others, works of the pioneers of Hungarian historical Avant-Garde such as Farkas Molnár and Lajos Kassák. Alongside the already mentioned Hungarian artists, the Collection includes the works of renowned representatives of Neo-Avant-Garde art, such as Miklós Erdély, Tamás Szentjóby, Gábor Attalai, members of the Pécsi Műhely group and many others.

The exhibition Radical Practices from the Marinko Sudac Collection is a short-list selection of Neo-Avant-Garde and Post-Avant-Garde masterpieces created from the early 1960s until the early 1980s. Emblematic works of Art informel, proto-conceptual, conceptual, and post-conceptual art, experimental films of the 1960s and 1970s, Arte Povera, ecological art and other radical approaches created in the spirit of Yugoslav new artistic practices. The works from the Marinko Sudac Collection are presented in the gallery space of the famous Ukrainian ship widely known as the Artemovsk 38, docked on the Danube River. Once a cargo ship, built in 1968, in the year which signifies a turning point of European and World history of the 20th century, today A38 is one of the most interesting cultural centres of the Hungarian capital.

It is precisely this year, 1968[1], marked by global student riots, workers' strikes and direct street conflicts of citizens with the forces of the reigning Communist regime all across Europe, which reflects of countless changes in the general social, economic, and political order. The echoes of this turmoil can be seen in the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia, which was, at the time of the Cold War and the political and ideological showing of might between the USA and the USSR, moving away from the rigid Stalinist repression, which resorted in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement and moving more towards the West. The external political balancing of Josip Broz Tito between the Eastern and the Western block will shortly result in the creation of conditions for a unique Socialist enclave, and particular social and cultural climate, unique in context of the countries behind the Iron Curtain. Yugoslavia’s absolute faith in science and technology in the 1960s resulted in modernization and industrialization of once agricultural country, in the building of urban and cultural centres, which all led to an increased living standard in comparison to other Socialist countries. Yugoslav artists were present at all international art fairs, the State promoted socialist realism, and at the same time tolerated important cultural events, such as exhibitions and symposiums of the international movement New Tendencies, Musical Biennale Zagreb, Genre Film Festival (GEFF) or the Experimental Film Festival[2], on which both artists from the East and the West participated. However, the growing discrepancy between theory and practice of Yugoslav self-governing Socialism will divide the country on conservatives and liberals, and lead to a new crisis. Some economists, intellectuals, novelists, artists critiqued the then situation, and a significant part in that critique played the philosophers gathered around the Praxis magazine[3], while the strongest resistance will come from the students, especially in Zagreb and Beograd. All the reforms that followed the 1968 riots could not secure a "Socialism with a human face", for it would signify a "necessary democratization of the society at all levels and in all segments" which also meant "a political liberalization", which was impossible in a regime which thought of every form of critique of the state apparatus an obstruction, and its critics as "enemies of the regime and the country". The resistance to political centralism and repression started in the late 1960's, and it would continue during the 1970's, and especially in the 1980's, and it will become "an increasingly influential component of political activism in Yugoslavia."[4]

Inside the regime's ideology, and in parallel with the last bursts of high "politically accepted" modernism, and leaning on its Avant-Garde predecessors, another artistic wing of Yugoslav art, as the art historian Ješa Denegri phrases it, "Other line" of art is formed,[5]another wing of Yugoslav art, a wing of resistance, pointing towards the dominant social and aesthetic norms and values.

This multimedia exhibition is based on the works which testify to this exact creative activism before and after the year 1968. The art of that period is existentialist, subversive, sometimes trying to be inconspicuous, but sometimes seen in the real space and time, and engaged and provocative. Often working as a group in the prominent art centres of the time - in Zagreb, Beograd, Ljubljana, Novi Sad, and Subotica, artists often produced similar art. The critique of modernist cult of the painting, the demystification of an artwork, the denouncing of the aesthetic and taking on a conceptual view on artworks, the exploration of artistic practices, the position of the arts and art institutions, as well as art itself, alongside a strong critique of the regime, are just some of the topics and preoccupations put on the artists and put on discussion. This is evident in its experimental, often destructive character, and increasing decentralization of the medium, and finally with the appearance of new artistic genres and the use of "new artistic practices"[6], urban actions, performances, body-art, anti-film, and other unconventional modes of expression pointed against socially and ideologically acceptable art, while the galleries and academy have been replaced by alternative spaces or the street.


CRITIQUE OF THE PAINTING AS A CRITIQUE OF THE REGIME


Explorations of Art informel, which started in the late 1950s, and has a strong ground in the existentialist philosophy and directed towards examining the very matter of a painting were presented on the exhibition in its radical form of Other art[7], exampled with paintings/reliefs by the two strongest Croatian protagonists Ivo Gattin and Eugen Feller. The series of black-and-white photographs document the performative act of painting, the creation process, or the destruction of a work from the series of Surfaces with holes by Ivo Gattin, done by stabbing and burning of tar, wax or pigment on canvas, which was made in the short period of only a couple of years. Feller's painting-relief Malampija from 1961 was created using non-painting materials and the burning of the pigment's surfance and plaster covered in tar, which resulted in a black relief structure, as well as a new rendeing of the work of the painting-object. The artists found inspiration for his malampija (French: Malempia) series from the so-called French "new novel" Portrait d'un inconnu (Portrait of a Man Unknown) by Nathalie Sarraute, in which the two main characters have been locked in a all mouldy basement for years," without any wish to go out, sniffing their own evaporations, warmly tucked in on its great bottom Malampija"[8].

In this treatment of the surface used by both artists there comes a negation of classic composition and a destruction of the traditional square format of the painting is achieved.

One of the radical examples of the critique of the modernist image and the status change from the position of a finished work of art to a thought process is evident in the works of informal proto-conceptual group Gorgona (1959 –1966), which did not have a set programme and obligations for its members to contribute to society. The group world "in quiet, shutting out the social reality as a form of opposition" of the regime's art politics, it stood for intellectual and artistic freedom and anticipated new, non-conventional forms of expressions, presentation, and communication of later generation's conceptual artists of the early 1970s, such as projects and urban actions, books and magazine as artists' media, mail-art, behavioural art. Gorgona group members were painters Josip Vaništa, Marijan Jevšovar, Đuro Seder, Julije Knifer, sculptor Ivan Kožarić, architect Miljenko Horvat, and theoreticians Dimitrije Bašićević Mangelos, Radoslav Putar i Matko Meštrović. Lead by Josip Vaništa, the group organized thirteen exhibitions in Studio G (1961 - 1963, in Schira Salon, picture-framing salon) in Zagreb, and other joint projects, and it published an anti-magazine Gorgona (1961 - 1966, total of 11 issues), where each issues was an artwork, and a few were made in collaboration with international artists such as a Fluxus artist Dieter Rot, or were saved as projects for the anti-magazine, such as three proposals by the Zero group member Piero Manzoni, and one unrealized collaboration with, surely, the most influential artist of the post-war art, Marcel Duchamp. The group’s activity manifested mostly in talks, meetings, or in other words, the very existence of the group, the Gorgonic behaviour which is preserved in their vast correspondence. That specific Gorgonic spirit which echoed through the work of all the group's members and came from their world-views is best described in the words of the art historian Nena Baljković (Dimitrijević) as an "absurd, monotony, nihilism, and metaphysical irony."[9]

Josip Vaništa achieve his desire for the total reduction of content, colour and form of the painting by a series of composition created after 1961, which was created without any illusions and condensed to an elementary drawing of a horizontal silver line in the middle of a monochrome canvas, without any sign of a border. In his later works, Vaništa went a step further by replacing the painted motif with its verbal description and in this way he reduced the classical pictorial character of a painting to a mental process, or a concept. On Marijan Jevšovar's paintings, there is a visible desire of the artist to eliminate all the characteristics that make a painting - from its content, illusion of space to composition. He shifted the focus to the very act of painting, leaving only the strokes, the gesture, traces on the surface, about which he says: "My painting is a negation of form, dirtying the white surface of a canvas".[10]

Some Gorgona members were tightly connected with the international movement New Tendencies, and even exhibited and actively participated in the gatherings and round tables held in Zagreb in the space of the then Gallery of Contemporary Art, or today's Museum of Contemporary Art. The before-mentioned ties and like-minded contacts of Gorgona group and European artist, phenomena and events such as New Tendencies, Fluxus, Zero Group, put Gorgona in the context of the aspiring Neo-Avant-Gardes of the 1960s. In the next decades the phenomena or the myth of Gorgona will become a subject of unrelentless research and revalorization among experts, starting with the retrospective exhibition in 1977 in GSSU in Zagreb, continuing until today.[11]

The achievements of Zagreb's experimental film in the framework of Yugoslav independent film scene of the 1960s are presented by the black and white film Times from 1966 by Vladimir Petek, a pioneer in the genre. The film was created as part of the discussions and round tables, and the Experimental Film Festival GEFF (1963)[12], done by radically reducing all modes of expression, experimenting with unconventional procedures dominated by the unclear narration and repetitive rhythm. Petek's early anti-films belong to the so-called materialist wing of experimental film and are done in free-framing, often with interventions directly on the, usually 16 mm, film tape (by colouring or cutting) and montage procedures using scraps of old movie tapes, putting the very medium in question, and deconstructing it. His experimentations with film will later be continued by the emergence of the FAVIT group (Film, Audio-visual Research, Television, 1971). In the context of this group, and in collaboration with other film-makers, he will make over 80 multimedia works. Using various technical equipment the group members performed so-called "multivision", simultaneous film screenings or slideshows.

Besides the already mentioned festival which gathered the explorers of the film medium from all the Republics and even the world, other smaller, but not less important, festivals were founded in Yugoslavia. These festivals focused on the phenomena of experimental film, and some are the "Mala Pula Festival" (Little Pula Festival), "Beogradske Alternative" (Beograd Alternatives), "Marčeva osmica" (The March Eight) in Novi Sad, Film Festival of Amateur Films in Ljubljana. In the late 1960s in the context of the independent scene in Slovenia there were screenings of experimental films. Two experimental colour films were created by the members of an important Slovenian conceptual interdisciplinary OHO Group (1966 – 1971). The film OU by Marijan Ciglić was created on the turn of the 1969. It is provocative in content and contains psychedelic music of the rebellious time, and it was sped up by frequent change of shots with an overflow of double expositions and blurriness, which gives a frantic tone to the film. The second film Lego by Naško Križnar, is an early example of the group's interest in ecological issues, a conscious view on the issue of landscape pollution, which came from thinking on the need of humans to return to nature. The OHO group encompassed visual artists, poets and like-minded individuals: Marko Pogačnik, Iztok Geister, Marijan Ciglić, a kasnije David Nez, Franci Zagoričnik, Milenko Matanović, Andraž Šalamun, Tomaž Šalamun, Matjaž Hanšek, Naško Križnar and many others[13], and its expanded circle included the theoreticians and philosophers such as Slavoj Žižek, and Drago Delaberardina. They were not content with the state of the society and cultural happenings in the Socialist society. The group's works was manifested through various activities. In the initial phase, it was marked by the aesthetics of Reism, a philosophy close to Existentialism, the group performed visual and concrete poetry, published OHO publications, performed happenings, action in urban spaces, and with that it can be linked to other similar artistic phenomena such as Fluxus. The second phase can be connected with Arte Povera, body-art and ambient art, performance, experimental film, land art, interventions in nature, while the third phase is characterised by transcendental conceptualism.

The turning point of the group's work would be the Grandfathers exhibition[14] organized in the Gallery of Contemporary Art in Zagreb in 1969 on which Milenko Matanović, David Nez, Andraž and Tomaž Šalamun exhibited. The 1969 installation Haystack, corn, bricks was put on for this occasion, made by bringing in the elements of nature to a gallery space which showed the group's interest in Arte Povera. Fourty years later, in 2010, with the intention of re-connecting the members and commemorating the group's activities, the Marinko Sudac Collection organized a one-day event OHO after OHO in the Museum of Contemporary Art Zagreb and redid the same installation.

In the group's activities in the late 1960s appeared an ecological awareness and the increased awareness of the ever-growing need to connect humans to nature, which can be seen in the departure from institutional spaces and going to nature by doing conceptual intervention, or connecting or equalizing art and life, one of the most important characteristic of Avant-Garde art, with the end goal of founding the "Porodica iz Šempasa" group (The Šempas Family) in a small villages in the valley of the Vipava river. The Šempas Family represents the end of the group's artistic work, its final surge to co-existence with nature as a sixty-eight-type commune, similar to other movements such as hippies, Greens and other groups.

A nearly direct critique of the Yugoslav socialist regime of the 1970s can be seen in probably the most striking work of the exhibition, an experimental film, never put on screen until now, by Radomir Damnjan Damnjanović with an indicative title Flag from 1974. Made in the style of performance and it features an intriguing representation of the Cold War rivalry of United States and the Soviet Union with its skilful framing and montage using the symbolism of an American flag. The framing throughout the entire nine minutes of the film ends with a personal intervention of the artists on the American flag motif. In the last, key scene of the film, the author makes a ritual sacrifice by hanging a live white bird, its wing spread, over the American flag as a symbol of freedom. The same artist, in his work Disinformation, Blue–Red-Yellow points to the efficient means that totalitarian politics uses to manipulate the public - disinformation and manipulation with ideological speech. The use of state insignia such as the hammer and sickle, crests, or using political sayings, which mostly signalled regime provocation and was often forbidden from showing, is present in the works of many conceptual artists and groups. Bálint Szombathy, a multimedia artist, member of the BOSCH+BOSCH Group [15], by exploring the semantics and the critique of language and symbols of Socialism, includes in his works a repertoire of the socialist regime insignia, and offers a conceptual proposition of deconstruction of the Yugoslav flag in his work Three Modes-Deconstruction of Yugoslavia.

The basic preoccupations of the previous generation of proto-conceptual and conceptual artists, such as constant rebellion and harsh critique of government and institutional art, the position and perception of the artists and art of the late 1970s, are deepened and manifested in the work of and initially marginalized post-conceptual Group of Six Authors (Željko Jerman, Sven Stilinović, Mladen Stilinović, Boris Demur, Vlado Martek, Fedor Vučemilović) created in 1975, who made exhibitions-actions[16], which will become a characteristic manner of the group's collective work in public, and later also by creating alternative exhibition space Podroom (1978 - 1980) and PM Gallery (Expanded Media Gallery), open from 1981 to 1991. Their work was documented in the magazine MAJ 75 published from 1978 to 1984. The activity of the Group is presented on the exhibition with an example of a radical and destructive work involving Željko Jerman's elementary photograph, and a photo-montage by the artist Sven Stilinović in which he recycled older photographs, as well as Collaged Realia by Boris Demur and Vlado Martek. Self-taught artist Željko Jerman started with his radical experimentation with the medium of photography after 1974. He burnt photographs, used X-ray images, photogram procedures (imprinting objects on photo-paper and exposing them to daylight without using a camera), direct intervention using a developer and a fixing medium, writing out nihilist messages such as End or Death or Die, you photograph. He also used his body, which bring photography to the point of physical devastation and to the negation of the medium itself, which shoes the artist's struggles for his very existence. Boris Demur's collage Dead, Alive is part of a series of radical collages, the so-called existentialist realias in which a tendency of the artists for the freedom of expression as an equivalent of the artists fight for intellectual and creative freedom in the Socialist society can be seen. The artist-poet Vlado Martek, in his large collage which is left untitled (similar to his poet-objects of the 1970s in which he uses various symbols and insignias of society and culture), replaces his usual conceptual linguistic considerations with a horror-scene from everyday life by gluing a photograph of a killed man cut from daily press on a piece of paper, to which he adds a piece of a mirror. Considering the fact that Marteks views "artistic work as an attempt of a man to foremost mentally analyze and connect formal and structural aspects" in this case he faces not only himself with the cruelty of the scene but he bring the viewer in the work itself by using the mirror's reflection.

Simultaneously with the Zagreb conceptual practices of the early 1970s, and with the work of young art historians Dunja Blažević and Biljana Tomić, many quality projects were made in the Gallery of the Students' Cultural Centre in Beograd, in which artists from all over Yugoslavia, and even the world, participated. In the work of the Gallery a group of Beograd's conceptual artists (Era Milivojević, Marina Abramović, Gera Urkom, Neša Paripović, Raša Todosijević, Zoran Popović) was active, in the spirit of the new artistic practice, doing performances, photography, body-art and video art. A special segment of the artistic practice of this Beograd group was photography as a document or photography as a means of artist's communication in first person, used by the group. One such example is the photographic documentation of a performance by Era Milivojević from his Art Session series, Taping artist with adhesive tape, in which, in this case, the artist in question was the famous Yugoslav performance and body art artist Marina Abramović, who became an art material or object of the artist, in other words, a living sculpture. The work was exhibited at the Oktobar 71 exhibition in the SKC Gallery in Beograd. A similar use of the medium of photography is by the BOSCH+BOSCH group from Subotica using a series of black-and-white photographs by the group's founder Slavko Matković titled Breakthrough matter through matter.

There are examples of individual works in the art practices of the early 1980s that testify on the period of the so-called "decadent eighties" in Yugoslavia, which were created in the characteristic dissident stance towards art and society, such as the work/object Flag featuring a five-pointed star by Sven Stilinović, which was done in mixed media using razor blades. Similar is the black and white photo-documentation from the series of public actions by the performance artists Tomislav Gotovac. In these performances the artist changed his identity from a Street-sweeper to the Mask of Death, simultaneously incorporating regular daily activities into the world of art by promoting his work through the Polet (Verve) weekly magazine (1967 – 1990), one of the most influential alternative "art spaces" of that time. This signified a complete change in viewing of the newspaper photography genre and it thematically expended the interest field of a generation of photographs gathered around the magazine in the 1980s.

One of the most significant artists of the new artistic practice, active from the early 1930s in the medium of film, photography, public actions and performance is Tomislav Gotovac. A film by Željko Kipke titled Black, Blacker than Black also belongs to his period, and it shows an intervention in a public space performed on Easter of 1985 at the Otokar Keršovani Square in Zagreb. On the ground in the Square, he put a canvas with painted black rhomboids on this he lay face-down, spreading his hands like Jesus in a mandorla in the scene of Last Judgement. The entire scene was shot by Boris Vidović using an 8 mm camera driving circles on a bicycle, giving the film a feel of levitation, further emphasizing the magic-mystical character with clear references to Marcel Duchamp.

The exhibition Radical Practices from the Marinko Sudac showcases some artistic phenomena occurring in former Yugoslavia from the early 1960s to the early 1980s. The aim was to show works from the Collection which in some way show the unique social-political and cultural phenomenon of the Yugoslav utopia of "Socialism with a human face". But the selection was primarily shaped the Collection "character", made from many significant artworks, which to interested experts gives an opportunity to offer different interpretations and exhibition concepts in a set time and space frame, and the unique gallery space of the ship. One very interesting stance is one by the artist and curator Živko Grozdanić Gera who sees the Collection as an artwork of a radical anonymous artist, in which the successive process of collecting and researching of the works is equal to the process of artistic creation.[17] According to him, the only correct way of viewing the phenomenon of the Collection is through the concept of the "collection’s auto-reflective nature", meaning that it "shows the concept of its creation", or the collector's strategy. In this way showcasing and exhibiting a part of the collection or works from it can be seen as a move away from that concept, and the task of reading the context of the Collection and putting on the exhibition as a great challenge for any expert.


Ivana Janković

In Zagreb July 28 2015.

curator at the Museum of Contemporary Art Zagreb


[1] Mark Kurlansky: 1968. - Godina koja je uzdrmala svijet, Naklada Ljevak, Zagreb, 2012; original title 1968. The Year that rocked the World

[2] New Tendencies are an international movement created in 1961 in Zagreb at the initiative of a few like-minded individuals, Argentinian artist Almir Mavignier, art critic Matko Meštrović, Radosalv Putar, and with the support of GGSU. In Zagreb, in the twelve-year period between 1961 and 1973, five large international exhibitions have been organized on which the current tendencies of European art had been presented (Neo-Constructivist, Optical, Kinetic, Conteceptual Art), accompanied by various events, symposiums, and round tables, on which art historians such as Umberto Ecco or Giulio Carlo Argan participated, and the magazine Bit INTERNATIONAL was being published. Musical Biennale Zagreb was founded on the same year. In the next years the festival hosted leading musicians of classical and experimental music, including Igor Stravinsky, John Cage, Nam June Paik, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Steve Reich and others. GEFF, short for the Experimental Film Festival, a biennale festival, was founded in 1964, and its main initiator was a film amateur Mihovil Pansini. The festival questioned the possibility of film art, and it gathered protagonists from the entire Yugoslav and global experimental and independent movie scene.

[3] Praxis is a philosophy magazine of Marxist orientations which held the ideas of Social humanism and developed a non-dogmatic rendering of the idea of a human as a being of practice. The representatives of the praxis philosophy were Milan Kangrga, Branko Bošnjak, Danko Grlić, Gajo Petrović, Vanja Sutlić, Rudi Supek, and Predrag Vranicki, who organized international gatherings "Korčulanska ljetna škola filozofije" ("Korčula Summer School of Philosophy") on the island of Korčula. The magazine collaborated and hosted in the summer school many leading names of philosophy, the leading philosophers of the world Neo-Dogmatic Left: Ernst Bloch, Erich Fromm, Herbert Marcuse, Henri Lefèbre, Jürgen Habermas, Leszek Kołakowski. The school and the magazine shut down in 1974 due to political reasons. (See: Socialism and Modernity. Art, Culture, Politics 1950 – 1974, ed. Ljiljana Kolešnik MCA, IHA, Zagreb, 2012)

[4] Hrvoje Klasić: Jugoslavija i Svijet 1968, Edition Ljevak, Zagreb, 2012.

[5] Jerko Ješa Denegri: Razlozi za drugu liniju - Za novu umetnost sedamdesetih, Zagreb, 2007; Prilozi za drugu liniju, Belgrade, Macura, Vienna-Belgrade, 2005.

[6] Inovacije u hrvatskoj umjetnosti sedamdesetih godina, Galerija suvremene umjetnosti, Zagreb, 1982.

[7] Ješa Denegri. Informel 1956  ̶ 1962, Galerija Nova, Zagreb, 1977 ; Un Art Autre according to a French theoretician Michal Tapié.

[8] Nathalie Sarraute, Portrait d'un inconnu, Pariz, 1949; Natali Sarot, Portret Neznanca, Progres, Novi Sad, 1960. pp. 18; The introduction to the edition from Novi Sad was written by the founder of the existentialist witting Jean Paul Sartre.

[9] Nena Baljković, Gorgona, exhibition catalogue, Galerija suvremene umjetnosti, Zagreb, 1977.

[10] Vlastimir Kusik, Skica za uvod u slikarstvo Marijana Jevšovara, Kolo 1/2, 1994. in: ed. Nardi Čanić, Marijan Jevšovar, UM, Zagreb, 1996. str. 29

[11] Nena Dimitrijević, Gorgona, exhibition catalogue, Galerija suvremene umjetnosti, Zagreb, 1977.

[12] Mihovil Pansini, GEFF 63 book, Organizacioni Komitet Geffa, 1967. : New Tendencies influenced the organization of GEFF (1963 - 1970), the Experimental Film Festival as part of Zagreb's cinema-clubs, founded at the initiative of the amateur film director Mihovil Pansini, a pioneer of experimental film and alternative cinematography. GEFF spoke for the freedom of exploration of media and themes. Peteks early anti-films were also an incentive to organize a round table Anti-film and Us, which had started GEFF. The definition of the anti-film is taken from the same source on pp. 81: Mihovil Pansini: "ANTI-FILM IS MORE OF A FILM OF DICTION, EXPRESSION, IT COMMUNICATED THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE AUTHOR AND THE VIEWER, IT IS AND ACT OF DISCOVERING THE EXPLORATION."

[13] Vojin Kovač, Chubby, Aleš Kermavner, Marika Pogačnik, Zvona Ciglić, Nuša and Srečo Dragan

[14] Milenko Matanović- David Nez-Tomaž Šalamun-Andraž Šalamun, exhibition catalogue, Gallery of Contemporary Art, Zagreb, 1969; OHO, exhibition catalogue, Museum of Modern Art, Ljubljana, Frankfurt am Main : Revolver, Archiv für Aktuelle Kunst, 2007

 [15] Space interventions, land art, concrete and visual poetry, conceptual art, visual semiology, new comic, mail-art.

[16] Then, every form of public showing was under police surveillance and it had to have a permission to be held. The member of the Group of Six Authors got the permission through the then City Gallery of Contemporary Art, and the help of Radoslav Putar and Mićo Bašičević Mangelos, members of the Gorgona group.

[17] editor-in-chief: Nenad Popović, Branko Franceschi, Fantom slobode, Tipotisak d.o.o., broj 2/2010, pp. 11